Simulation, Ceramic


  • Our Technical Team together with the Simulation Dept. of TEIDE REFRACTORY SOLUTIONS bets decisively on the use of finite element software for thermal calculations of our customers' wagons.

  • This software simulation allows us to know the variables for different scenarios that would be very expensive to reproduce in the laboratory or directly impossible.

  • TEIDE REFRACTORY SOLUTIONS offers finite element calculation studies to our customers for the complete thermal analysis, that occurs in their industrial process.

How long does it takes for the wagon temperature to stabilize?

Normally our customers are interested knowing the temperatures of the bottom of the wagons. To illustrate how long it takes for the temperature of the wagons to stabilize, we numerically simulate the thermal behavior of a wagon subjected to a uniform temperature of 950 ° C for 350 hours. This case is far from usual in tunnel kiln cooking cycles, but it will be very useful in order to have a magnitude of the elapsing time until the temperature stabilizes.

HEATEIDE® improves other software in:

A) Calculating the evolution in time of the temperatures, and not only the final equilibrium temperature. B) Allowing 2D or 3D geometry.

The characteristics of the simulated wagon are showed in the following figure: Geometry and characteristics of the wagon.


The following video shows the evolution of temperatures in time. It can be observed that the existence of different components with different thermal characteristics can be easily solved through HEATEIDE®.

                                             Evolution in time of temperatures

The bottom of the wagon is the area that takes the longest time to reach an equilibrium temperature. The evolution of the temperature at the bottom of the wagon appears in the following graph, together with the constant temperature that has been applied to the upper side of the wagon:

**Evolution in time of temperatures on the tunnel kiln (left) and at the bottom of the car (right) calibration ** The results agree with those available in the literature: Norton, F. H., & Botia, P.D. (1972). Refractory. Blume.


A minimum of 60 hours has to elapse at a constant temperature of 950 ° C so that the temperature of the wagon stabilizes. We have already commented before that this is a case far from usual for tunnel kilns, since there are usually no constant temperature situations for 60 hours. For periods of constant temperature less than 60 hours it is not valid to do a stationary calculation, therefore it is necessary to incorporate the temporal variable in the calculations using HEATEIDE®

HEATEIDE® allows us to know the evolution in time of temperatures in any part of the car, compared to other software that can only calculate the long term average temperatures .

In a next publication we will see the potentialities of HEATEIDE® as a tool to calculate the evolution of temperatures in a wagon for a cycle of 25 hours. Do not hesitate to contact our sales team if you need advice on thermal calculation with finite elements using HEATEIDE®

geometry, wagonevolution,time, temperaturesevolution, time, temperatures, tunnel, kiln

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